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The U.S. DRIVE Partnership -- a government-industry partnership that fosters the development of precompetitive and innovative technologies for clean and efficient light-duty vehicles -- has made significant progress in many technical areas including advanced combustion technologies, durability and cost of hydrogen fuel cells, and electric drive systems such as motors, power electronics, and batteries, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. However, high costs for essentially all the technologies under development and lack of a hydrogen fuel infrastructure for deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles remain challenges. Read More
The National Academy of Engineering has re-elected Martin B. Sherwin, retired vice president of W.R. Grace, to serve a four-year term as the NAE's treasurer. Re-elected to second terms as councillors are Frances S. Ligler, Lampe Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering in the joint department of biomedical engineering at the North Carolina State University College of Engineering and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill School of Medicine, and H. Vincent Poor, Michael Henry Strater University Professor at Princeton University. And newly elected councillors are Katharine G. Frase, retired vice president of education business development at International Business Machines Corporation, and Yannis C. Yortsos, dean of the Viterbi School of Engineering at the University of Southern California. All terms begin July 1, 2017. Read More
Despite broad understanding of volcanoes, our ability to predict the timing, duration, type, size, and consequences of volcanic eruptions is limited, says a new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. To improve eruption forecasting and warnings to save lives, the report identifies research priorities for better monitoring of volcanic eruptions and three grand challenges facing the volcano science community. Read More
The National Academy of Sciences announced today that it has received a $10.5 million gift from The Kavli Foundation to establish the Fred Kavli Endowment Fund, which honors the late physicist, entrepreneur, innovator, business leader, and philanthropist. To recognize Kavli's generous and unwavering support for science, the auditorium of the historic National Academy of Sciences building will be renamed the Fred Kavli Auditorium. A portrait of Fred Kavli and a commemorative plaque will be unveiled at the NAS annual meeting, which will take place April 29-May 2.
Mobilization of a rapid and robust clinical research program to combat the next infectious disease epidemic will depend on strengthening capacity in low-income countries for response and research, engaging people living in affected communities, and conducting safety trials before an epidemic, says a new report from the National Academies. Read More
Stakeholders in the scientific research enterprise -- researchers, institutions, publishers, funders, scientific societies, and federal agencies -- should improve their practices and policies to respond to threats to the integrity of research, says a new report from the National Academies. Actions are needed to ensure the availability of data necessary for reproducing research, clarify authorship standards, protect whistleblowers, and make sure that negative as well as positive research findings are reported, among other steps. The report also recommends the establishment of an independent, nonprofit advisory board to support ongoing efforts to strengthen research integrity. Read More
A new report from the National Academies presents a strategy to eliminate hepatitis B and C as serious public health problems -- diseases that kill more than 20,000 people every year in the U.S. -- and prevent nearly 90,000 deaths by 2030. Read More
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency carries out experiments in which volunteer participants agree to be intentionally exposed by inhalation to specific pollutants at restricted concentrations over short periods to obtain important information about the effects of outdoor air pollution on human health. A new report by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine finds these studies are warranted and recommends that they continue under two conditions: when they provide additional knowledge that informs policy decisions and regulation of pollutants that cannot be obtained by other means, and when it is reasonably predictable that the risks for study participants will not exceed biomarker or physiologic responses that are of short duration and reversible. Read More
A new book from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine outlines how educators can develop and adapt student assessments for the classroom that reflect the approach to learning and teaching science described in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and similar standards, which stress the integration of knowledge of science with scientific and engineering practices.
Advances in genetics and genomics are transforming medical practice, resulting in the dramatic growth of genetic testing, which includes testing for inherited cancer syndromes, predictive testing of newborns for evidence of treatable diseases, and prenatal testing to detect abnormalities in the genes or chromosomes of a fetus. Given the rapid pace in the development of genetic tests and new testing technologies – both laboratory developed tests and those marketed directly to the consumer – and the lack of federal regulation governing genetic tests, the U.S. Department of Defense Office of Health Affairs asked the National Academies to recommend a framework for DOD decision making regarding the use of genetic tests in clinical care. A new report lays out the decision framework.